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Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate

Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate is the fact that magnesium dihydrate has two water molecules that have a magnesium cation. Meanwhile, magnesium trihydrate is composed of three water molecules containing a magnesium cation.

Magnesium dihydrate, as well as magnesium trihydrate, are important organic compounds utilized as an aid in treating acidity-related conditions within the stomach.

What is Magnesium Dihydrate?

Magnesium dihydrate is an organic compound with the chemical formula H 4. MgO 2. + 2. The molecular mass of the substance is 60.34 grams per mol. If we look at the crystal structure of magnesium dihydrate is a +2 charged atom that is bonded to two molecules of water. This is the reason for its name, magnesium dihydrate “di” meaning two, and “hydrate” referring to water.

Magnesium Dihydrate
Magnesium Dihydrate

This compound’s Hydrogen bond donor count for the compound is 2 and the hydrogen bond acceptor count is 2. The rotatable bond count of this compound is zero. It is a heavy atom count of 3. its formal charge is 2. The complexity of magnesium dihydrate is defined as a zero-degree phenomenon and the compound has been deemed canonical also.

This ingredient is helpful for relieving the symptoms of heartburn as well as difficulty swallowing as well as persistent cough. It acts as a treatment to repair acid-related damage to the stomach and esophagus.

It also helps in preventing ulcers, and could aid in the prevention of cancers of the throat. But, there are certain side effects associated with taking magnesium dihydrate for example, black or filthy stool, blistering or peeling or loosening of the skin, constipation, discomfort in the chest or lightness of feeling or darkened urine, rapid heartbeats, and so on.

What is Magnesium Trihydrate?

Magnesium trihydrate is a non-organic compound that has its chemical formula as H 6MgO 3 + 2. The mass of the compound is 78.35 mg/mol. The number of hydrogen bond donors for this compound is three as well as the accepting count for hydrogen bonds is three also. The number of bonds in the rotatable is zero. Additionally, it has an atomic weight 4.

Magnesium Trihydrate

The complexity can be described as zero. Furthermore, it is formally charged at +2. It is effective for treating issues with the stomach and esophagus which include acid reflux and ulcers. This medicine works by reducing levels of acid that is produced in the stomach (the acid that the stomach produces reduces the amount of acid it produces).

It can ease discomforts like stomach pain, heartburn, difficulty swallowing as well and constant cough. There are adverse reactions to using magnesium trihydrate for example, black, gritty stool, blistering or peeling, or loosening of the skin, constipation as well as chest pain and lightness in the urine, darkened, rapid heart rate, etc.

Difference Between Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate

Magnesium trihydrate and magnesium dihydrate are two medications that play a significant role in relieving acidity-related conditions in the stomach. One of the main differences between magnesium dihydrate and trihydrate is that magnesium dihydrate has two water molecules containing a magnesium cation. Likewise, magnesium trihydrate has three water molecules containing a magnesium cation.

Here’s a comparison chart summarizing the key differences between Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate:

Characteristic Magnesium Dihydrate Magnesium Trihydrate
Chemical Formula MgCl₂·2H₂O MgCl₂·3H₂O
Physical Form White powder White powder
Solubility in Water Soluble Highly soluble
Density (g/cm³) Approx. 1.56 Approx. 1.58
Production Sources Natural brines, synthesis Synthesis, occasional natural occurrence
Main Applications Desiccant, moisture control, industrial processes Fire retardant, plastics, construction, dietary supplement
Hydration/Dehydration 2 water molecules are absorbed, and released when heated 3 water molecules are absorbed, and released when heated
Industrial Importance Moisture control Fire safety, supplements
Safety Concerns Skin/eye irritation potential Generally safe for ingestion, avoid inhaling dust
Water Absorption Capacity Lower Higher
Notable Use Cases Pharmaceuticals, desiccants Flame retardants, dietary supplements

Chemical Properties of Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate

Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate have many similar chemical properties due to their molecular structures and hydration states: these properties include decreased molecular sizes as well as water retention properties.

Magnesium Dihydrate:

  • Chemical Formula: MgCl2*2H2O Molecular Structure: Magnesium Dihydrate contains one magnesium ion (Mg2+) coordinated to two chloride ions (Cl-) via water molecules which bind them. These two water molecules also coordinate with one of the magnesium ions to create the dihydrate structure.
  • Hydrated State: When magnesium chloride molecules contain two water molecules per magnesium chloride molecule.
  • Water Interaction: Magnesium Dihydrate contains water molecules that are weakly bound by hydrogen bonding to magnesium and chloride ions; they can easily be released when heated, leading to the production of anhydrous magnesium chloride.

Magnesium Trihydrate:

  • Magnesium Trihydrate:  It contains no such interaction and so the water molecules occupying its matrix remain free to move around freely as in magnesium Dihydrate, and form part of its anhydrous state when heating occurs, producing anhydrous magnesium chloride crystals.
  • Magnesium Trihydrate: Magnesium Trihydrate can be broken down to its three essential constituent parts – magnesium (Mg2+), two chloride ions (Cl-), and three water molecules that coordinate with its magnesium ion.
  • Hydration State: Magnesium chloride molecules contain three water molecules each.
  • Water Interaction: Magnesium Trihydrate’s three water molecules interact weakly with magnesium and chloride ions through hydrogen bonding; when heated they may release to form anhydrous magnesium chloride.

Crystal Structure

Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O) and Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O) exhibit similar crystal structures due to water molecules being coordinated around magnesium ions and chloride ions, respectively.

Here’s an easy explanation of their respective crystal structures:

Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O):

  • Magnesium Dihydrate displays an interesting crystal structure wherein each magnesium ion (Mg2+) is surrounded by six chloride ions (Cl-) in an octahedral arrangement.

Magnesium trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O):

  • Three magnesium ions coordinate with two water molecules through oxygen bonds that connect oxygen atoms on each magnesium ion to form bonds through which two water molecules (H2O). They occupy opposite corners of an octahedron in this way thereby stabilizing magnesium chloride complexes.
  • Magnesium Trihydrate’s crystal structure contains eight magnesium ions (Mg2+) each surrounded by six chloride ions (Cl-), arranged octahedrally.
    Magnesium Trihydrate differs in that three water molecules (H2O) coordinate each magnesium ion through oxygen bonds, thus expanding its octahedral coordination sphere by an additional position compared with Magnesium Dihydrate.

Production and Sources of Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate

Production of Magnesium Dihydrate:

  • Chemical Synthesis of Magnesium Dihydrate: Magnesium Dihydrate can be produced chemically through reacting magnesium oxide or hydroxide with hydrochloric acid or magnesium chloride with water to produce hydrochloric acid or magnesium chloride solution, followed by crystallization to form Magnesium Dihydrate crystals.
  • Natural Brine Sources: Magnesium Dihydrate can also be sourced from natural brine sources, typically underground saltwater deposits rich in magnesium and chloride ions. Once collected, this brine must then be processed to eliminate impurities or extra water before finally being concentrated and crystallized into Magnesium Dihydrate crystals for sale.

Magnesium Trihydrate Production:

  • Chemical Synthesis: Magnesium Trihydrate can be produced using an identical process to that for its production of Magnesium Dihydrate; with one key difference: adding one extra water molecule per magnesium chloride ion in its formation. Reactants used include MgO or Mg(OH)2 mixed with hydrochloric acid or magnesium chloride mixed with water in order to form crystals of Magnesium Trihydrate.
  • Natural Occurrence of Magnesium Trihydrate: While Magnesium Trihydrate is usually synthesized synthetically, some naturally occurring sources do exist – though less frequently. Examples could include mineral deposits or combinations within geological formations.

Stability and Storage

Stability and proper storage conditions must always be considered when working with magnesium dihydrate and trihydrate compounds as they can be vulnerable to moisture and environmental influences.

Below is a breakdown of their stability and storage needs:

Stability and Storage of Magnesium Dihydrate:

  • Moisture Sensitivity: Magnesium Dihydrate is very sensitive to moisture. It readily absorbs it from its surroundings and absorbs even small amounts, quickly becoming moistened when exposed to too much humidity or water vapor causing it to clump or even disintegrate altogether if left exposed for too long.
  • Storage Containers: To preserve its integrity and stability, store Magnesium Dihydrate in airtight, moistureproof containers with tightly seal lids – typically made of plastic or glass material that provide optimal moisture proof storage conditions.
  • Storage Conditions: Magnesium Dihydrate should be stored in an ideal ambient temperature environment away from direct sunlight. Furthermore, temperature variations should be minimized to prevent condensation inside its storage container.
  • Desiccants: Placing desiccants such as silica gel or calcium chloride inside of any storage containers containing Magnesium Dihydrate will help absorb any moisture that might enter during its storage, helping ensure an ideal atmosphere.
  • Shelf Life: Magnesium Dihydrate usually has an indefinite shelf life when properly stored, although periodic inspection should take place for indications of moisture ingress that might indicate its degradation. Clumps or unusual changes to appearance could signal moisture encroachment.

Stability and Storage of Magnesium Trihydrate:

  • Moisture Sensitivity: Magnesium Trihydrate is also sensitive to moisture; however, due to its higher hydration state it absorbs more liquid compared to Magnesium Dihydrate.
  • Containers: Magnesium Trihydrate should be stored in airtight, moistureproof containers to preserve quality storage conditions and preserve freshness of product.
  • Storage Conditions: Magnesium Trihydrate should be stored in an environment with controlled humidity levels to minimize potential moisture exposure that could cause it to clump or disintegrate.
  • Desiccants: For optimal storage container conditions, desiccants may help maintain low humidity levels by actively extracting moisture out.
  • Shelf Life: Magnesium Trihydrate typically has an extended shelf life when stored correctly and should be closely inspected for moisture-induced changes that affect its appearance or texture. As with all foods containing magnesium, periodic examination should take place.

What is Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate used for?

Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O) and Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O), with their distinct hydration states and properties, serve distinct uses in various industries due to their specific applications.

Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O):

  • Desiccant: Magnesium Dihydrate is frequently employed as a desiccant, or moisture absorbent, helping prevent moisture-related damages to products, machinery and equipment during storage and transportation.
  • Drying Agent: Magnesium Dihydrate can be utilized as a drying agent in industrial processes to extract moisture from gases, solvents and liquids containing humidity; effectively decreasing their water content by up to 73%.
  • Fire Extinguishing Agent: Magnesium Dihydrate can also serve as an effective fire retardant, though not as commonly employed for this purpose as Magnesium Trihydrate. Fire extinguishers containing magnesium dihydrate may help suppress fires involving certain metals like magnesium.
  • Pharmaceuticals: Magnesium Dihydrate can be utilized in pharmaceutical formulations to regulate moisture levels and ensure drug and medication stability.
  • Chemical Industry: Moisture control has an integral place in chemical processing where product quality and safety are of utmost concern.

Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O):

  • Flame Retardants: Magnesium Trihydrate has become widely utilized as an effective and cost-efficient flame retardant across several industries, especially plastics, rubber, textiles and construction materials. When exposed to heat it releases water vapor that cools flames down while diluting their intensity thereby decreasing fire risks and spreading.
  • Construction Materials: Fire retardants can be included into building materials like paints, coatings, cables and flooring to increase fire safety properties and enhance fire-resistant qualities.
  • Dietary Supplements: Magnesium Trihydrate is often utilized as an excellent source of magnesium in nutritional products like supplements or antacids, providing controlled releases of magnesium when consumed – perfect for nutritional applications.
  • Pharmaceutical Applications: When applied in pharmaceutical formulations, Magnesium Trihydrate can act as both an excipient or filler during tablet production.
  • Other Industrial Uses: Magnesium Trihydrate may find uses in other chemical processes and industrial applications where its unique characteristics, like flame retardancy capabilities, make the compound particularly advantageous.

Health and Safety Considerations

Health and safety considerations must always be kept in mind when working with or using both Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate compounds, even though both compounds are generally safe to use as intended applications.

Here are a few precautions you should keep in mind for both compounds:

Health and Safety Considerations of Magnesium Dihydrate:

  • Skin and Eye Irritation: Magnesium Dihydrate is generally considered low risk; however, direct contact with its powder or dust may result in skin and eye irritation, so when handling this compound it is advisable to wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves and safety goggles, for best protection.
  • Inhalation Risks: Magnesium Dihydrate processing should be undertaken in well-ventilated spaces with adequate ventilation systems in place, to minimize inhaling dust or fumes that might irritate the respiratory tract and create dust clouds during handling or processing, to limit inhaling dusts/fumes which might irritate them further. Use respiratory protection where appropriate if handling it could pose risks to respiratory health.
  • Fire Risk: While Magnesium Dihydrate itself is nonflammable, exposure to strong acids can release hydrogen gas which could release dangerous levels of hydrogen which are potentially explosive and should be handled carefully to minimize fire risks.

Considerations Regarding Magnesium Trihydrate for Health and Safety:

  • Ingestion Safety: Magnesium Trihydrate should generally be safe when consumed in appropriate amounts; it serves as an important source of magnesium in our diets, but too much could result in stomach irritation or diarrhea.
  • Inhalation Risk: Similar to Magnesium Dihydrate, inhaling any dust or aerosols produced while handling Magnesium Trihydrate should be limited as much as possible to avoid respiratory irritation and ensure adequate ventilation and respiratory protection may be required in certain scenarios.
  • Skin and Eye Contact: Although Magnesium Trihydrate isn’t highly caustic or toxic, it is still wise to wear protective gear such as gloves and safety goggles when handling it to protect both yourself and those near you from potential irritation or chemical burns.
  • Fire Safety: Magnesium Trihydrate differs from Magnesium Dihydrate in that it doesn’t emit hydrogen gas when exposed to acids; nonetheless, it should still be stored and handled responsibly to minimize fire risks.
  • Avoid Dust Formation: To minimize health risks, it’s crucial to prevent dust generation when handling both compounds. Dust is known to be irritating to skin, and should therefore be managed using appropriate handling techniques and containment measures.
  • Environmental Implications: Dispose of all waste or spills according to local regulations for environmental contamination prevention.

Side effects of Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate?

There is limited information regarding the long-term side effects of Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O) and Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O), as both compounds are generally safe when used appropriately and for their intended purposes.

It’s still essential that individuals understand any possible risks that might accompany long-term exposure or overconsumption:

  • Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O): This substance combines magnesium chloride and two halves of hydrogen hydroxide in one solution for increased efficiency in production.
  • Skin and Respiratory Irritation: Continuous or repeated Magnesium Dihydrate exposure without proper protective gear could potentially lead to skin and respiratory irritation over time, with long term exposure being particularly hazardous in industrial settings.

Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O):

  • Gastrointestinal Effects: Consuming too much magnesium Trihydrate through supplements or antacids for extended periods can result in discomfort, diarrhea and electrolyte imbalances if daily dosage exceeds recommended amounts. This effect becomes especially apparent if consumption significantly surpasses these limits.
    Important to keep in mind is the fact that both compounds, when taken according to safety recommendations and recommended dosages, tend to be safe with no serious long-term side effects.

As with any substance, cannabis must be carefully used and adhere to safety precautions:

  • Dosage of Magnesium: Trihydrate as a Dietary Supplement: For maximum effectiveness and to avoid potential digestive health concerns when taking Magnesium Trihydrate dietary supplements as part of an everyday regiment, adhere strictly to recommended daily dosage levels for maximum effect.
  • Occupational Safety: Workers in environments handling these compounds should observe all applicable safety protocols, including wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE can reduce both skin and respiratory exposure.
  • Allergies: Individuals who have allergies to magnesium or related substances should exercise extreme caution if they experience adverse reactions and seek medical advice if any symptoms develop.
  • Environmental Repercussions: Waste materials that contain these compounds must be properly discarded according to local regulations in order to avoid environmental contamination.


Magnesium Dihydrate and Magnesium Trihydrate are chemical compounds with differing degrees of hydration that each possess unique properties and applications. Magnesium Dihydrate (MgCl2*2H2O) consists of two water molecules and can act as an effective desiccant and moisture absorbent agent, commonly used in industrial processes and pharmaceutical products.

Magnesium Trihydrate (MgCl2*3H2O), on the other hand, features one extra water molecule to enhance its water-absorption ability and is often utilized as an absorbent in plastics, construction materials, and food supplements.

Though both compounds share many similarities in composition and application, their diverse hydration states and applications make selecting one optimal for specific industrial or pharmaceutical needs especially essential.

By admin