Chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs: The key difference between chemotrophs and chemotrophs is that chemotrophs are living organisms that absorb electrons through an organic compound whereas chemotrophs obtain electrons from inorganic substances. Living organisms can be classified into different types according to their diet according to the source of energy and carbon. There are energy sources such as organic compounds and sunlight. There are also two types of carbon sources: organic carbon and organic carbon.
The four main types are photoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and chemoheterotrophs. Depending on the main source of the reducing agent equivalent, there are two types as abiotic and anaerobic. Chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs are two types of energy users produced by the breakdown of chemical substances. They differ in the form of electronic donors. Electron donors include organic compounds found in chemolithotrophs while reducing equivalent sources include inorganic compounds in chemotrophs.
Introducing Chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs as two significant microbial groups
Chemoorganotrophs, also known as chemolithotrophs, are two important microorganisms that play vital functions in diverse ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles. They have distinct metabolic strategies for getting energy and nutrients that allow them to flourish in diverse conditions and aid in how the biological system functions.
- Chemoorganotrophs, Chemoorganotrophs are microorganisms that depend on organic compounds for their primary energy source. They generate energy by dissolving complex organic molecules including sugars carbohydrates, fats and proteins, via a process called cell respiration. This metabolic pathway involves the process of oxidation, which breaks down organic molecules and releases energy that is used to create Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) the principal energy source in cells.
- They are widely distributed and are found in a variety of habitats, such as water, soil and even the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Many fungi and bacteria fit in the chemoorganotrophs category. They play an essential role as decomposers. They break down dead animal and plant material and reintroduce nutrients to the ecosystem. Chemoorganotrophs can also be found in the human intestine, which aids digestion and aid in the overall health of the gut.
- Chemolithotrophs, Chemolithotrophs constitute a specific class of microorganisms that use inorganic compounds as a fuel source. Contrary to chemoorganotrophs they do not depend on organic matter to generate energy, but instead get it from oxidizing organic substances. The most common inorganic compounds utilized by chemolithotrophs include ammonia hydrogen sulfide, iron-sulfur, and a variety of metal Ions.
- Chemolithotrophs stand out because of their abundance in extreme environments where organic matter is in short supply or is absent. They are, for instance, abundant in deep-sea hydrothermal vents hot springs with acidic temperatures, and subsurface environments containing mineral deposits. Microorganisms play an important role in geochemical cycles like the nitrogen cycle and the sulfur cycle, which contribute to the transformation and cycle of essential elements in the environment.
- Apart from their ecological importance, they have also attracted attention in the fields of biotechnology and industrial applications. Some species are utilized in bioleaching processes that extract valuable metals from ore While others are utilized for bioremediation, which removes contaminants from sites that are contaminated.
Both chemoorganotrophs, as well as chemolithotrophs, are vital to the overall working of ecosystems. They are involved in the cycle of nutrients as well as energy flow and balance in ecosystems by recycling and transforming diverse substances. The study of these microbial communities will not only improve knowledge of complex interactions within ecosystems but also shows the potential of these groups for a variety of practical applications. The distinct methods of metabolism employed by chemoorganotrophs, as well as chemolithotrophs highlight the extraordinary flexibility and diversity of microorganisms found in the world of microbial life.
The importance of understanding their differences for ecological and industrial applications
Understanding the difference between chemoorganotrophs versus chemolithotrophs has crucial importance both for industrial and ecological applications. Both microbial communities possess different metabolic techniques, eco role, and potential applications which makes their research essential in a variety of fields of study as well as practical applications.
A. Ecosystem Function: Chemoorganotrophs as well as Chemolithotrophs are essential to the cycle of nutrients and energy within ecosystems. Chemoorganotrophs as decomposers break down organic matter, and release nutrients that are vital to the development of plant as well as other living things. Chemolithotrophs aid in biogeochemical cycles through the transformation of organic compounds, like sulfur and nitrogen, which affects how readily these substances are available to different organisms.
B. Extreme Environments: Understanding the metabolic capacities of chemolithotrophs is essential to understanding their existence and function in harsh environments, like hydrothermal vents the acid mine drainage and other geothermal zones. These environments have a limited amount of organic matter and chemolithotrophs play a vital part in sustaining the ecology’s dynamic.
C. Microbiological Interactions: Examining interactions between chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs in microbial communities could provide insight into the dynamic and resilience of ecosystems. Learning how different groups interact and interact can help understand the diversity of microbial communities and their structure.
A. Bioremediation Chemoorganotrophs: as well as Chemolithotrophs could be a good candidate for being used in bioremediation to purify contaminated areas. Chemoorganotrophs are able to degrade organic pollutants. Some chemical chemolithotrophs have the capability of oxidizing toxic substances, aiding in the elimination of pollutants from locations.
B. Bioleaching Chemolithotrophic: Microorganisms, specifically some species of bacteria are used in bioleaching processes to remove valuable metals from low-grade ore. They assist in the dissolution process of metal sulfides, which aids in the recovery of metals of mineral deposits.
C. Biotechnology and Bioprocessing: understanding how metabolic processes work and the distinct properties of chemoorganotrophs as well as chemolithotrophs can open up new possibilities for making use of these microorganisms in the biotechnology field and in bioprocessing. The enzymatic abilities of these microorganisms are a great resource for the manufacturing of biofuels and pharmaceuticals and other biotechnological goods.
D. Agriculture: insights into how chemoorganotrophs’ metabolic habits as well as chemolithotrophs may be relevant to agriculture. Certain microorganisms can help in soil fertility as well as availability of nutrients, affecting the growth of crops and yield.
Understanding the fundamental differences between chemoorganotrophs as well as chemolithotrophs is vital to make educated decisions regarding biotechnology, environmental management, and many other fields. By understanding their distinct biochemical capabilities and ecological functions and capabilities, we can maximize the potential of microorganisms for sustainable, eco-friendly applications. In addition, their research could result in a greater understanding of the intricate connections between microorganisms as well as their environments which will enhance an understanding of nature of the world.
Chemoorganotrophs are a variety of microorganisms that generate energy to fuel their metabolic processes through degrading organic compounds. Organic compounds are their main source of carbon as well as energy.
This metabolic approach is known as chemo heterotrophy “Chemo” refers to the chemical use, “hetero” indicates the utilization of a variety of carbon sources as well as “trophy” denotes the acquisition of nutrients.
Characteristics of Chemoorganotrophs:
- The acquisition of energy: Chemoorganotrophs gain energy by the process of cellular respiration. In cellular respiration organic molecules such as sugars carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are oxidized an oxygen-rich environment (aerobic respiration) or other electron acceptors (anaerobic respiration) to create ATP which is the main energy currency in the cell.
- Carbon Source: Chemoorganotrophs utilize organic carbon resources, meaning that they absorb carbon from organic compounds already in existence. They don’t eliminate carbon dioxide in the atmosphere like autotrophic organisms such as bacteria and plants do.
- Oxygen Requirement: Chemoorganotrophs are either aerobic (requiring oxygen to respire) as well as anaerobic (using alternative electron acceptors, such as Nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide). In the absence or presence of oxygen, it can affect their metabolism and yields of energy.
- Taxonomic Diversity: Chemoorganotrophs belong to a variety of taxonomic classes, including bacteria, fungi and some protists, as well as certain species of animals, including humans. Common bacteria, like Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis, fall in this category.
Chemoorganotrophs play an essential role in the ecosystems they inhabit. They are decomposers, dissolving organic matter that is derived from dead animals, plants and other microorganisms. Decomposition releases important nutrients, including nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and then back into the ecosystem and makes them accessible to other organisms within the food chain.
In addition, chemoorganotrophs are crucial in the cycle of nutrient metabolism, since they play a role in processes like denitrification and nitrogen fixation. Chemoorganotrophs can also be involved in synergistic relationships with plants, aiding in the uptake of nutrients and improving the growth of plants.
Medical and Industrial Relevance:
Certain chemoorganotrophic bacteria may be beneficial and have negative effects on the human body. Certain species are beneficial in helping digestion and generating vital nutrients in the human gut. Chemoorganotrophs that are pathogenic may cause illness and infection.
For industrial use, these chemoorganotrophs have been employed in numerous biotechnological processes. They are used for the production of antibiotics, enzymes and other bioactive substances. Certain chemoorganotrophic bacterial species are involved in bioremediation and wastewater treatment and contribute to the degradation of organic pollutants within the environment.
In general, chemoorganotrophs comprise extensive and important ecological microorganisms with a role to play in the cycle of nutrient metabolism, and health in the environment and can be utilized in medicine and biotechnology. Understanding their metabolic capacities and ecological functions is vital to harness their potential for sustainable solutions as well as gaining insight into the complex world of life that exists on Earth.
Chemolithotrophs are an intriguing group of microorganisms that generate energy to fuel their metabolic processes through burning inorganic compounds. In contrast to chemoorganotrophs which rely on organic compounds for energy sources, chemolithotrophs get their energy from chemical reactions that involve inorganic substances.
This particular metabolic method is known as chemolithotrophy in which “chemo” refers to the use of chemicals, “litho” indicates the utilization of inorganic substances as well as “troph” denotes the acquisition of nutrients.
Characteristics of Chemolithotrophs:
- The acquisition of energy: Chemolithotrophs harness energy by burning inorganic substances, like ammonia (NH3) hydrogen sulfur (H2S) and iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) and a variety of metal ions. Chemical reactions generate energy, which is then used to create adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) which is the main energy transporter in cells.
- Carbon Source: In contrast to chemoorganotrophs that absorb carbon from organic substances the chemolithotrophs are not able to remove carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They depend on existing organic carbon sources found in the environment or other organisms.
- Oxygen Requirement: Chemolithotrophs may be anaerobic (using oxygen as an electron acceptor) or anaerobic (using alternative electron acceptors such as the sulfate or nitrate groups as well as carbon dioxide). Their energy-producing pathways differ based on the oxygen availability as well as other electron acceptors.
- Habitat and Adaptations: Chemolithotrophs are typically located in environments that have low organic matter like hydrothermal vents, deep-sea sediments and geothermal zones as well as acidic soils. They have developed special enzymes and metabolic pathways that meet the demanding conditions in these habitats.
- Taxonomic Diversity: Chemolithotrophs are a variety of taxonomic categories which include specific bacteria, archaea, and even a few types of autotrophic protists.
Chemolithotrophs play a crucial role in biogeochemical processes, specifically in the cycle of elements such as nitrogen, sulfur and iron. Some chemolithotrophic organisms are involved in nitrification. This is a process where they convert ammonia into nitrite, and then Nitrate, which is responsible for changing nitrogen levels in soils as well as aquatic environments.
In harsh conditions, chemolithotrophs are the main producers and are the base of unique ecosystems. Hydrothermal vents for instance provide diverse communities of organisms that depend on chemolithotrophic bacteria for the main source of energy.
Industrial and Biotechnological Applications:
Chemolithotrophs are used in a variety of industrial applications. Certain species of chemolithotrophic bacteria are utilized in bioleaching processes to remove valuable metals from low-grade ore. Microorganisms oxidize metal sulfides which release gold, copper, and uranium, which are then recovered.
Chemolithotrophs are important in biotechnology due to their ability to create bioactive substances and enzymes. Researchers are investigating their capabilities to treat wastewater, bioenergy production, and bioremediation of polluted locations.
Comparison table of Chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs
|Organic compounds (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, fats)
|Inorganic compounds (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen sulfide)
|Pre-existing organic carbon sources or carbon dioxide (autotrophic)
|Can be aerobic or anaerobic
|Can be aerobic or anaerobic
|Organic compounds (e.g., glucose)
|Inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen)
|Oxygen or other organic molecules
|Inorganic compounds (e.g., oxygen, nitrate, sulfate)
|Many bacteria and fungi
|Certain bacteria and archaea
|Decomposers, symbionts, pathogens
|Primary producers in extreme environments, biogeochemical cycling
|Enzyme production, bioremediation
Contrasting Energy Sources
The distinct energy sources of Chemoorganotrophs as well as chemolithotrophs is at the root of their different metabolic strategies. The differences in their metabolisms define how these microorganisms obtain energy for their cellular processes, and play a role in their ecological functions.
- The energy source: Chemoorganotrophs obtain energy by dissolving organic compounds. These compounds comprise sugars and carbohydrates and lipids, proteins and other organic compounds that are derived from decaying or living matter. When cells respire the organic compounds are converted into oxidants when oxygen is present (aerobic respiratory process) as well as alternate electron acceptors (anaerobic respiration) which results in the creation of ATP which is the principal energy source in cells.
- Carbon Source: Chemoorganotrophs take in carbon-rich organic molecules. They don’t take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere or utilize inorganic carbon sources to increase their growth.
- Examples: A variety of species of fungi, bacteria and microorganisms are Chemoorganotrophs. Humans as well as other animals are also chemoorganotrophs since they depend on eating organic food sources for energy.
- Energie Source: Chemolithotrophs get energy from burning inorganic substances. These inorganic compounds be ammonia (NH3) as well as hydrogen sulfur (H2S) as well as iron (Fe) as well as sulfur (S) and a variety of metal Ions. The oxidation process of these compounds produces energy, which is used to make ATP.
- Carbon Source: Chemolithotrophs don’t fix the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They depend on organic carbon sources in their surroundings or other organisms.
- Examples The following examples: Certain archaea and bacteria are chemolithotrophs. They are usually found in extreme environments like hydrothermal vents, and acidic soils, in which organic matter is not abundant.
The Contrast in Ecological Roles:
- Chemoorganotrophs: As well as chemolithotrophs play distinct ecological functions due to their various carbon sources and energy sources.
- Chemoorganotrophs: Microorganisms have important roles as decomposers, taking organic matter down and re-using nutrients back to the ecosystem. They are vital for the cycle of nutrient and aid in the decomposition of dead animal and plant materials.
Chemolithotrophs can be located in harsh environments with little organic matter. They are the primary producers in these environments, sustaining unique ecosystems and assisting in biogeochemical cycles such as sulfur and nitrogen cycling.
The Contrast in Industrial Applications:
The different energy sources used by chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs are a factor in how they can be used in industrial processes.
- Chemoorganotrophs: Some chemoorganotrophic bacterial species and fungi are utilized in biotechnology to create antibiotics, enzymes, and various bioactive substances. They are also used in bioremediation and treatment of wastewater to remove organic pollutants.
- Chemolithotrophs: Some chemolithotrophic bacteria can be found in commercial applications for bioleaching in which they extract precious metals from low grade ores by the process of oxidizing metal sulfur.
In the end, the different energy sources for chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs affect their metabolic capacities and ecological functions. Chemoorganotrophs depend on organic compounds to generate carbon and energy Chemolithotrophs get energy from organic substances. Understanding these distinctions is vital to appreciate the variety of life on earth and their impact on ecosystems and industrial processes.
Metabolic pathways are a series of chemical reactions which occur inside cells to transform substrates into products, generating vital molecules and energy for cell processes and growth. They are tightly controlled and interconnected, which creates complex networks that allow living organisms to perform their diverse tasks. We’ll look at metabolism pathways in chemoorganotrophs as well as Chemolithotrophs and discuss the differences in the production of energy and the assimilation of carbon.
Metabolic Pathways in Chemoorganotrophs:
A. Glycolysis in chemoorganotrophs: The glycolytic pathway is a major process that breaks down glucose and other sugars into Pyruvate molecules. This process takes place in the cytoplasm and creates some quantity of ATP and other reducing agents such as NADH.
B. Citric Acid Cycle (TCA cycle): After glycolysis, pyruvate can be transported to mitochondria (in Eukaryotes) or into the cell cytoplasm (in prokaryotes) and is further oxidized within the TCA cycle. The cycle generates more ATP and reducers (NADH as well as FADH2) and releases carbon dioxide as an end product of the process.
C. Electron Transport Chain (ETC): The reducting agent (NADH and FADH2) created in glycolysis and in the TCA cycle transfer electrons onto the ETC which is found in the mitochondrial membrane (eukaryotes) or in the plasma membrane (prokaryotes). The ETC transports protons across the membrane, resulting in the proton gradient. The return of protons through ATP synthase triggers the synthesis of ATP through a process known as Oxative phosphorylation.
D. Fermentation: In certain instances, chemoorganotrophs undergo a the process of fermentation if oxygen sources are in short supply. Fermentation can allow the regeneration of NAD+ in NADH and allows glycolysis to keep going. Different chemoorganotrophs create different final products, like alcohol, lactic acid or any other organic acids, dependent on the particular process.
Metabolic Pathways in Chemolithotrophs:
a. Chemolithoautotrophy: Chemolithotrophs use inorganic compounds (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen sulfide) as their energy source. Certain chemolithotrophs are autotrophic. This means that they absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and produce organic molecules. Others are heterotrophic, utilizing existing natural carbon sources.
b. Energy Production: In chemolithoautotrophs, energy is derived from the oxidation of inorganic compounds. These electrons move via an electron transportation system which results in the formation of an electron gradient. The synthesis of ATP occurs via the chemiosmotic process, which is like the chemoorganotrophs.
c. Carbon Assimilation: In chemolithoautotrophs, the Calvin-Benson cycle is typically employed for carbon fixation. This pathway integrates carbon dioxide and organic compounds, creating crucial building blocks to support the cell’s growth and functions.
d. Chemolithoheterotrophy: Some chemolithotrophs are chemolithoheterotrophic, meaning they use inorganic compounds for energy but rely on pre-existing organic carbon sources instead of fixing carbon dioxide. The metabolic pathways found in these organisms can involve unique mixtures of heterotrophic and autotrophic processes.
In sum the metabolic pathways of chemoorganotrophs as well as Chemolithotrophs differ fundamentally because of their different carbon and energy sources. Chemoorganotrophs are primarily dependent on the decomposition of organic compounds by glycolysis as well as their TCA cycle, which is then followed by oxidative phosphorylation, which results in ATP.
Chemolithotrophs are, on the contrary use inorganic compounds to produce energy and could be autotrophic using the Calvin-Benson cycle to absorb carbon or heterotrophic, depending on the existing organic carbon sources. The diverse metabolic strategies enable these microbial communities to flourish in a variety of conditions and help to improve the functioning of ecosystems overall.
The ecological functions of Chemoorganotrophs as well as chemolithotrophs are vital in determining the dynamics and functioning of ecosystems. Because they are distinct microorganisms, with different methods of metabolism, they are able to occupy distinct niches and contribute to different ecological processes.
These are some of the eco functions of both chemoorganotrophs and the chemolithotrophs:
Ecological Roles of Chemoorganotrophs:
A. Composers: Composers Chemoorganotrophs is the most important decomposer in ecosystems. They play a crucial function in breaking down organic matter, including dead animal and plant material, into more simple substances. This process releases important nutrients, like nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus and many other elements returning to the water and soil and making them accessible to other living organisms in the food chain.
B. Nutritional Cycling: Chemoorganotrophs contribute significantly to the process of nutrient cycling within ecosystems. The process of breaking down organic matter and releasing the nutrients of dead animals, which allows them to be reused and utilized by plants and various living species. It is vital for the cycle of nutrients to ensure the sustainability and productivity of ecosystems.
C. Symbiotic Relationships: Some chemical organotrophs establish beneficial symbiotic connections with animals and plants. For instance, mycorrhizal fungi create mutualistic relationships that are a part of plant roots which enhance the uptake of nutrients and stimulate the growth of plants. Certain gut microbes in animals aid in digesting of carbohydrates that are complex. They also make vitamins.
d. Pathogens: that cause disease Chemoorganotrophs may be pathogenic and cause illnesses in animals, plants and even humans. Knowing their ecological functions and interactions is vital to controlling and preventing infections.
Ecological Roles of Chemolithotrophs:
a. Primarily Producing of extreme Environments: Chemolithotrophs are essential primary producers in extreme environments where organic matter is in short supply or not available. For instance deep-sea hydrothermal furnaces Chemolithotrophic bacteria use organic compounds, like methane and hydrogen sulfide as energy sources to provide unique ecosystems with no sunlight.
B. Biogeochemical Cycles: Chemolithotrophs play a major role in biogeochemical cycles, especially in the cycle of elements like nitrogen sulfur and iron. In particular, chemolithotrophic bacteria participate in nitrification. In this process, they convert ammonia into nitrite and nitrate. This is an essential process of the cycle of nitrogen.
C. Biomineralization: Certain Chemolithotrophs have a role to play in biomineralization. They precipitate minerals like silica, calcium carbonate along with iron and silica. These processes are important on the formation of sediment and affect the chemistry of aquatic ecosystems.
D. industrial applications: Certain chemolithotrophs have been utilized in industrial processes, like bioleaching, for instance. they are utilized to extract valuable metals from the ores by the process of oxidizing metal sulfur compounds.
Chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs have a wide range of ecological niches and serve vital tasks in ecosystems. Chemoorganotrophs play a crucial role in the cycling of nutrients and the breakdown of organic matter while chemolithotrophs are essential in harsh environments, and are involved in biogeochemical cycles. Understanding their ecological role is crucial to ensuring ecological balance, ensuring the health of the environment, and examining the potential of chemolithotrophs for many practical applications.
Both chemoorganotrophs, as well as chemolithotrophs, are biotechnologically important because of their unique metabolic capabilities. Microorganisms can be harnessed in a variety of biotechnological processes to create valuable products, reduce the effects of pollution on our environment, as well as help to develop eco-friendly industrial processes.
Here are a few biotechnological applications of chemoorganotrophs and other chemolithotrophs:
Biotechnological Applications of Chemoorganotrophs:
- Production of enzymes: Chemoorganotrophs specifically specific fungi and bacteria, are utilized for the production of enzymes on a large scale. Enzymes are used in a variety of industrial processes that include in the beverage and food industry as well as production of detergents as well as the pharmaceutical industry.
- Antibiotic Production: Certain organic chemoorganotrophs naturally produce antimicrobials, that are beneficial in fighting bacteria-related diseases in the field of medicine. Biotechnological techniques are employed to improve the production of antibiotics and to develop novel antibiotics.
- Bioremediation: Chemoorganotrophs have been used for bioremediation to remove environmental pollution. Microorganisms are able to degrade organic pollutants, like pesticides and hydrocarbons. They can also transform the harmful chemicals into harmless ones.
- Chemoorganotrophic: Bacteria for Wastewater Treatment are employed at wastewater treatment facilities to remove organic matter from wastewater, and reduce toxic chemicals and other pollutants prior to the water’s discharge into the atmosphere.
Biotechnological Applications of Chemolithotrophs:
- Bioleaching: Chemolithotrophic bacteria can be used in bioleaching processes to remove valuable metals from low grade ore. These microorganisms can oxidize metal sulfurides and release metals such as gold, copper and uranium to be recovered.
- Biomineralization Chemolithotrophic: Bacteria are utilized in biomineralization processes that produce minerals, like silica or calcium carbonate. These processes can be utilized in the construction and cement industries.
- Biogeochemical Cycling: Understanding the metabolic abilities of chemolithotrophs can be used to improve biogeochemical cycle models. This information aids in managing the cycle of nutrient and understanding the ecology’s dynamics.
- Bioenergy Production: A few Chemolithotrophs are being studied to discover their potential in bioenergy production. They are able to be used in bioelectrochemical systems that generate electricity or as fuel for microbial cells to produce energy.
The biotechnological applications of chemoorganotrophs and other chemolithotrophs is numerous and continue to expand as scientist study their unique metabolic capabilities. Microorganisms are a valuable tool to sustain sustainable methods, environmental protection, and also the production of valuable substances for a range of industries.
As biotechnological research advances the possibility of using these microorganisms for a variety of applications will likely to grow which will make them a key player to shape the direction of biotechnology as well as environmental management.
Chemotrophs make energy by oxidizing electron donors that are present in the environment around them. Based on the reducing compounds that is present in both types of chemotrophs, namely chemoorganotroph as well as the chemolithotroph. If the electron-donating material is organic, then the organism is considered to be chemoorganotrophic If the electron-donating material is not organic, it is referred to as chemically autotrophic or chemolithotrophic.
This is the main difference between chemoorganotrophs versus chemolithotrophs. Additionally it is true that chemolithotrophs are primarily microbes, whereas chemoorganotrophs are comprised of species of eukaryotic life.